Since trade barriers in the export sector have always been a problem, some exporters cannot characterize certain changes as protectionism. They often do not have a macroeconomic perspective because they are only interested in individual markets. Trade pacts are often politically controversial because they can change economic practices and deepen interdependence with trading partners. Improving efficiency through “free trade” is a common goal. Most governments support other trade agreements. Free trade agreements have traditionally contributed to the removal or removal of customs barriers. However, recent agreements, in particular, increasingly involve mutual recognition of a declaration of compliance or certificate. However, not all the rules of the relevant trading partner are covered. Many companies are therefore surprised that, despite the free trade agreement, they are still obliged to present a certificate for the Chinese market. Perhaps the term “free trade” is misleading – not everything is free. Absolutely. However, free trade agreements are primarily aimed at eliminating or reducing tariffs.
A clause relating to the “government treatment of non-tariff restrictions” is necessary, as most tariff characteristics can easily be duplicated by a set of non-tariff restrictions, designed accordingly. These include discriminatory rules, selective excise or sales taxes, specific health requirements, quotas, “voluntary” import restrictions, specific licensing requirements, etc., not to mention general prohibitions. Instead of trying to list and ban all kinds of non-tariff restrictions, the signatories of an agreement require similar treatment to the processing of products manufactured within the country (for example. B steel). In the modern world, free trade policy is often implemented by a formal and reciprocal agreement between the nations concerned. However, a free trade policy may simply be the absence of trade restrictions. A voluntary export restriction (VT) is a trade restriction on the amount of a product that an exporting country is allowed to export to another country. This limit is set by the exporting country itself.
The free trade agreement with China even gives Swiss companies temporary competitive advantages over EU companies, as the EU has yet to conclude such an agreement. An agreement also allows the importation of primary materials under the free trade agreement and hence the benefits of tariff preferences. Finally, the new agreements concern not only the movement of goods, but also aspects such as intellectual property, trade in services, public procurement and technical regulations. The WTO continues to classify these agreements in the following forms: governments with free trade policies or agreements do not necessarily abandon import and export controls or eliminate all protectionist policies. In modern international trade, few free trade agreements lead to completely free trade. All these agreements still do not collectively add up to free trade in its form of free trade. Bitter interest groups have successfully imposed trade restrictions on hundreds of imports, including steel, sugar, automobiles, milk, tuna, beef and denim.